|314-316||Sylvester||Break from Church of Rome (legend?)|
|364||Vigilantius preaching in Cottian Alps.|
|800||Waldensian forebears in the Valleys of Piedmont.|
|817- 839||Claude Bishop of Turin; opponent of images etc. Taught Justification by Faith alone; Basis for a Waldensian Church.|
|945||Atto, Bishop of Vercelli near Turin, describes "Vaudois" as sorcerers.|
|1028||Countess of Montfort and 27 fellow believers burnt in Milan. First burning of heretics in Italy.|
|1057||Victor II||Bull against heretics in diocese of Embrun|
|1097||Urban II||Inveighs against Val Louise.|
|1100||The "Noble Lesson" published.|
|1100-25||Pierre de Bruis evangelising southern France
Henry the Italian, active in Italy.
|1126||de Bruis burnt at St Giles. -his followers, Petrobrussians, persecuted.|
|1139||Innocent II||de Bruis doctrines condemned 2nd Lateran Council|
|1147||Death in prison of Henry the Italian.|
|1155||Arnold of Brescia, leader of the Publicani,
burnt at the stake
30 followers go to Oxford.under Gerard, pursued as heretics.
|1173||Peter Waldo converted .; establishes the "Poor Men of Lyon".|
|Produced translations of New and part of Old Testaments into Provencal patois.|
|1179||Alexander III||Delegation to Third lateran Council,; allowed to preach if got a licence from the local priest= refusal.|
|1181||Innocent III||Inquisition formed ; first attacks on Albigenses.|
|1183||Lucius III||Excommunicates Poor Men of Lyons, aka "Vaudois"|
|1190||Waldensian community at Darenth (Dartford) , Kent.|
|1200||Many sects in Northern Italy, Southern France (Dauphiny) inc.Cathari, Paterini, Umiliati, Publicani. - loosely called Cathari..Post 1183 Petrobrussians, `Cathari ` and some `Vaudois` form the Albigenses in French Valleys.|
Lotharius of Signia.
|Crusade against the Albigenses for next thirty years; some escape to join the Waldensians ;"The Poor Men of Lombardy".formed.|
|1217||Waldo dies in Bohemia.|
|1275||Inquisitor Reynerius very active against Albigenses|
|1297||First Waldensian Martyr, a woman, burnt at Pinerolo.|
|1307-24||Bernard Gui, Bishop of Lodere - Inquisitor. Left a "Manual for Inquisitors.".|
|1315||Waldensian settlement in Calabria, southern Italy, established and prospers.|
|1322||John XXII||Inquisitors sent to Lucerna and Perosa.|
|1329||Castalazzo Inquisitor in Angrogna. Martin Pastre presiding over large meetings. Inquisition hindered by Counts of Lucerna.|
|1332||John XXII||Papal Bull, arrest and demise of Pastre.|
|1386||Christmas Eve ; Inquisitor Borelli attacks Pragela; hundreds frozen to death trying to escape.|
|1425||St Bernard of Siena ties to convert Waldensians.|
|1448||Population of Angrona summoned before the Inquisitor.|
|1475||Yolanda Regent of Savoy, commands local lords to cooperate with the Inquisition.|
|1483||Economic riots, shortages of food etc.|
|1486||Innocent VII||Papal Bull calling for extirpation of the heretics.|
|1487||Cataneo, Archdeacon of Cremona appointed Legate. promulgates action against heretics. Lucerna Valley evacuated, people to Pra del Torno in Angrogna Valley..18000 troops assembled for the purpose.|
|1488||La Palu attacks Vale of Loyse, 3000 suffocated
by smoke in cave refuge.
Cateano attacks Valley of Prali; One ensign only survived from.a force of 700 troops..
Evacuation to Pra del Torno. Forces under Le Noir de Mondovi beaten.. Cateano forces under Saquet again beaten in frontal attack, hundreds drowned in the torrents of the Angrogna.
|1489||Duke of Savoy suspends attacks. Compromise peace., no preaching, pass from priest to travel. Spiritual life at low wbb.|
|1517||New Archbishop of Turin, Seysell, visits Valley of Pragelato, seeks converts by honeyed words. Rejected.|
|1526||Synod held in Laus, in Pragelato Valley; 140 barbes attend, including Martin Gonin of Angrogna and Guido of Calabria with news of the Reformation.|
|1530||George Morel and Peter Masson envoys to the Reformers in Geneva; with form of Confession of Faith.|
|1532||12 September synod of Chamferan. Attened by Farel and French representatives.|
|1535||Piedmont occupied by France. Second synod of Chamforan. Olivetan Bible delivered from printers in Neuchatel. Regular public worship agreed.|
|1555||Estimated 30 pastors and 40,000 believers in Piedmont. First Waldensian Church erected at Angrogna.; parishes organised.|
|1559||3 April, Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis. Spain, France and Savoy agree to extirpate heretics.|
|1560||13 February, Edict prohibiting
hearing of pastors.and compulsory attendance at the Mass. Revival of
Inquisition under Phillip of Savoy and Inquisitor Jacomel. November 4000
troops under Count de la Trinita in Valley of Lucerna
Cardinal Ghisleri, Grand Inquisitor descends on Calabria intent on extermination of Waldensians. Many horrors committed. At Montalto 88 prisoners taken one at a time to the town square and throats cut.; bodies quartered and hoisted on poles on the road side. In 11 days 2000 executed, 1600 waiting execution with 100 plus killed in the countryside. Some men to the galleys, women and children sold as slaves.
deputies- representatives held in Turin prison for 6 weeks. Proclamation
attend mass or be exterminated.
21 January atr Puy, Waldensians vow resistance. Retreat to Pra del Toro. The "Flying Company" formed. 27 October Proclamation of Fire and Sword. Fierce resistance overcomes Trinita`s attacks.
|1562||Pact of Cavour - intervention by Margaret of Savoy ( a protestant). Liberty of conscience allowed; status quo restored.|
|1565||Castrocaro governor of the Valleys. 17 year rule of terrorism on inhabitants and passing travellers alike.|
|1582||Castrocaro ousted and dies in prison at Cuneo 15 years later.|
|1587||Jesuits in Lucerna, give up after forty years. Replaced by Cappucin monks, they too depart after thirty years, ejected by the Waldensian women tired of their harassment and kidnapping of children.|
|1592||French occupation of Piedmont for two years.|
|1622||Society for the Propagation of the Faith founded (Propaganda de Fiede) 1650 added to the title "and for the extermination of the heretics". Became a helpmate of the Inquisition.|
|1630||May, Plague in Perosa Valley which rapidly spread. 13 of 16 pastors die.. 10,000 Waldensians die , 6000 in Lucerna Valley alone.|
|1650||Enforcement of Pact of Cavour- Edict to vacate environs of Lucerna, San Giovanni and Torres or must abjure their faith. Delayed by governor Gastaldo until ordered to implement in 1655.|
expedition ; Torre; Easter Saturday 24 April. Troops in the villages
massacre all and any Waldensians they can find. Over 2000 perished.
Thousands more flee
Giosue Gianavello, respected Waldensian, takes up arms at Rora - with army of five men and a boy, then 17 men, guerrilla tactics work. Army of 40 faced 10,000, unable to prevent 200 massacred at Rume. Valleys lost to Catholicism. Guerilla war continues under Jahier and Gianavello for four months. Treaty of Pinerlo or "Patents of Grace" not very successful, forced Waldensians from the plains.
|1663||Drift to Civil War.|
|1664||War ends with Treaty of Turin , Gianavello exiled to Geneva.|
|1677||Papal Nuncio urges Victor Amadeus II of Savoy to persecute heretics. Rejected.|
|1685||Revocation of the `Edict of Nantes`. French areas of Valley of Pragelato and left bank of Chisone river evacuated. 2000 to exile in Switzerland.|
edict expunges Waldensian rights and to cease forever the exercise of
their religion. Further edict to surrender arms and go en mase into exile.
Pastor Henri Arnaud of Torre leads resistance.
French army under Gen Catinat invades the Valleys, resistance by each commune but all overcome; massacres followed in every instance of surrender. Campaign over in 3 months; 12000 prisoners held; thousands dead.
|"The Invincibles" - about 80 men stage guerilla attacks and Catinat`s army returns. Successful campaign by Invincibles draws offer of exile for them and release of prisoners.|
Most prisoners released. 500 from Aosta `forgotten` for 3 years - 5 only
left for release. Hundreds of kidnapped children never found.
3324 of original 12,000 inhabitants of the Valleys in the previous year reached exile in Geneva. The balance perished.
|1688||Two expeditions to return frustrated by Swiss Govt. Henri Arnaud banished from Neuchatel; Gianavello from Geneva. Gianavello issues his "Instructions" how a return should proceed.|
August force of 1000 under Arnaud set out, 200 left on Swiss shore
by boatmen and arrested. 800 carried on.
Battle of Salbertrand, Waldensians defeat about 2500 French troops and enter the Valleys. 12th day arrive in Prali. 31 August (15th day) arrived in Bobbio.
2 May assault by 3800 troops on Castello (Arnauds redoubt). 24 May Castello falls. 367 survivors, guided by Capt Tron Poulat escape in heavy mist Savoy declares war on France; Waldensians relieved and return to homes.
|1690||Treaty of Alliance between Savoy and protestant countries - kidnapped children to be allowed to return. Papal Bull issued to declare the agreement void. Ignored.|
|1696||Savoy and France again allied. French protestants refused entry and Waldensians expelled. Arnaud, six pastors and 3000 Waldensians go to Germany - Wurtenburg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt. Took mulberry bushes for silk culture and introduced the potatoe to Germany.|
|1703||Savoy again fighting France, another respite for the Valleys.|
|1713||Treaty of Utrecht. Savoy becomes King of Sicily and whole of Val Prageleto. Secret pact to exterminate Waldensians from there. Liberty a flash in the pan. New edict ordering children to Catholic schools; protestants not members of local councils, no gathering of more than ten persons.|
|1730||Decree that all inhabitants of Pragelato would be deemed to be Roman Catholics. About 1000 exiled to Switzerland.|
|1735||Dutch fund "Comite Wallon" to manage funds in support of Waldensians.|
|1740||Institute for kidnapped children "Institute for Waldensian Catechumens" transferred from Turin (founded 1679) to Pinerolo. Boys over 12, girls over 10 remained liable to `kidnapping` by the Church .Closed 1890.|
|1768||George III authorised a national fund for the Waldensians - administered by Society for Propagation of the Gospel .|
|1794||Piedmont invaded by France; later ceded to France. Liberty of worship and equality under the law declared. Waldensians finally freed at stroke of a pen. Too good to be true.|
|1812||Great improvements under Napoleon but return of Victor Emanuelle I to Piedmont saw Rome again dominant . His successor King Carlo Felice also anti Waldensians.|
|1831||Monsignor Charvaz Bishop of new diocese of Pinerolo implacable enemy of Waldensians, enforced property laws outside the Valleys; reinstated Institute for kidnapped children.|
|1848||17 February. Decree of Emancipation, ancient edicts against Waldensians revoked. But still lack of certainty in decree meant not equality under the law but toleration.|
|1919||Mussolini facist dictator joins with Church. Rome once again obtains restrictions on Waldensians.|